# 19. Verbal Prefixes

## 19.1 Prefix usage

adding a prefix to an imperfective verb usually creates a perfective verb with a modified meaning. adding a prefix to an imperfective verb of motion does not create a perfective verb, but a new imperfective verb with a modified meaning. The same prefix is attached to the perfective aspect of the verb of motion to form the perfective form of the new verb. When a prefix ending in a consonant is attached to a verb beginning in an iotized vowel, a buffer symbol is placed between them. When хадзі́ць has a prefix attached to it, the accent moves to the root for all forms. When ісці́ has a prefix attached to it, the initial і- changes to an й- and the accent falls on the prefix for all persons in the present tense except the 1st person singular. The exception to this is the prefix вы-, for which the accent always falls on this prefix, irrespective of person or tense. When either хадзі́ць or ісці́ has a prefix attached, which ends in a consonant, an ы is placed as a buffer between the prefix and root.

 аб‘яві́ць to announce* ад‘е́хаць to drive up* прыхо́джу I am coming* рыхо́дзіў I came* по́йдзе he will go* айшо́ў he went* разышлі́ся they dispersed*

19.2 Directional prefix meanings

Each of these prefixes has additional meanings that have nothing to do with direction, but for now I have only listed the meanings which imply a direction of motion. Prefixes can be added to verbs to create new verbs. adding a prefix to the indeterminate form of a verb of motion creates the imperfective infinitive of a verb, and adding the prefix to the determinate form creates the perfective infinitive of the same verb. The exception to this rule is the verb е́хаць and е́здзіць, to go [by transport]. The perfective aspect of a verb can be formed by adding a prefix to е́хаць, but the imperfective aspect of the same verb is formed by adding the prefix to the verb язджа́ць. The form язджа́ць rarely occurs on its own, without a prefix. These prefixes can also be added to other, non-motion verbs.

па- This prefix is added to the directional infinitive to form the perfective infinitive for all verbs of motion.

 айсці́ to go [somewhere, on foot]
ае́хаць абе́гчы to run [somewhere] ане́сці to carry [something somewhere]
to go [somewhere, by transport]

- This prefix implies encompassing or overtaking motion.

 Indet. et.
абыхо́дзіць быйсці́аб‘язджа́ць б‘е́хаць to surround [with something]
to walk around to drive around абганя́ць багна́ць to overtake бкла́дваць | бкла́сці

- This prefix has the meaning of moving away.

 адыхо́дзіць дыйсці́ ‘to withdraw’
адно́сіць дне́сціадбіра́ць дабра́ць to take away дрыва́ць | дарва́ць to tear off
to carry off
• This prefix has the meaning of going out of something.
 выхо́дзіць ы́йсці to exit [on foot]
вы́насіць ы́несцівыбіра́ць ы́браць to select ырыва́ць | ы́рваць to tear out
to carry out

да- This prefix implies movement as far as, or up to, a certain point.

 дахо́дзіць айсці́ ‘to reach’
дано́сіць ане́сцідаганя́ць агна́ць to catch up to абіра́цца | абра́цца to get as far as
‘to bring as far as’

з- This prefix has the meaning of coming off of, or coming out of.

 зыхо́дзіць ыйсці́ to come off of
з‘язжа́ць ‘е́хацьзно́сіць не́сці to take down from, to take out of німа́ць | няць to remove
to depart

за- Verbs with this prefix have the meanings of traveling far, or past something.

 захо́дзіць айсці́ to walk behind
забе́гаць абе́гчызано́сіць ане́сці to carry [far] away акла́дваць | акла́сці to place behind

на- Verbs with this prefix have the meaning of collision with something.

 нахо́дзіць айсці́ ‘to come across, to walk into’
наязджа́ць ае́хацьнапада́ць апа́сці to fall into аступа́ць | аступі́ць to approach [a certain time]
to run into [with a vehicle]

д- This prefix has the basic meaning of upward motion.

 падыхо́дзіць адыйсці́ ‘to approach [on foot]’
пад‘язджа́ць ад‘е́хацьпадбяга́ць адбе́гчы ‘to run up to’ адніма́ць | адня́ць to lift
‘to drive up to’

пера- This prefix has the meaning of crossing over something.

 перахо́дзіць ерайсці́ ‘to walk across’
перано́сіць еране́сціперадава́ць ерада́ць ‘to pass along’ еракла́дваць | еракла́сці to transfer, to translate
‘to carry across’

пра- This prefix gives verbs the meaning of passing by something.

 прахо́дзіць райсці́ ‘to pass by’
праязджа́ць рае́хацьпрабяга́ць рабе́гчы to run by рано́сіць | ране́сці to carry by
‘to drive past’

раз- This prefix gives verbs the meaning of movement in various directions, or distribution.

 разыхо́дзіцца азыйсці́ся ‘to disperse’
раз‘язджа́цца аз‘е́хаццаразбяга́цца азбе́гчыся to run off, to scatter азлята́цца | азляце́цца to fly away, to scatter
‘to drive away [in various directions]’

у- This prefix gives verbs the meaning of entering. It changes to ува- with хадзі́ць and ісці́.

 увахо́дзіць вайсці́ ‘to enter’
уязджа́ць е́хацьубяга́ць бе́гчы ‘to run in’ но́сіць | не́сці to carry in
to drive in
• This prefix gives verbs the meaning of upward motion.
 узыхо́дзіць зыйсці́ ‘to walk up’
узла́зіць зле́зціузлята́ць зляце́ць ‘to take off’ звыша́ць | звы́сіць` to elevate
‘to climb up’
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