19. Verbal Prefixes

19.1 Prefix usage

adding a prefix to an imperfective verb usually creates a perfective verb with a modified meaning. adding a prefix to an imperfective verb of motion does not create a perfective verb, but a new imperfective verb with a modified meaning. The same prefix is attached to the perfective aspect of the verb of motion to form the perfective form of the new verb. When a prefix ending in a consonant is attached to a verb beginning in an iotized vowel, a buffer symbol is placed between them. When хадзі́ць has a prefix attached to it, the accent moves to the root for all forms. When ісці́ has a prefix attached to it, the initial і- changes to an й- and the accent falls on the prefix for all persons in the present tense except the 1st person singular. The exception to this is the prefix вы-, for which the accent always falls on this prefix, irrespective of person or tense. When either хадзі́ць or ісці́ has a prefix attached, which ends in a consonant, an ы is placed as a buffer between the prefix and root.

абяві́ць to announce* аде́хаць to drive up*
прыхо́джу I am coming* рыхо́дзіў I came*
по́йдзе he will go* айшо́ў he went*
разышлі́ся they dispersed*<br / дыхо́джу I am leaving*

19.2 Directional prefix meanings

Each of these prefixes has additional meanings that have nothing to do with direction, but for now I have only listed the meanings which imply a direction of motion. Prefixes can be added to verbs to create new verbs. adding a prefix to the indeterminate form of a verb of motion creates the imperfective infinitive of a verb, and adding the prefix to the determinate form creates the perfective infinitive of the same verb. The exception to this rule is the verb е́хаць and е́здзіць, to go [by transport]. The perfective aspect of a verb can be formed by adding a prefix to е́хаць, but the imperfective aspect of the same verb is formed by adding the prefix to the verb язджа́ць. The form язджа́ць rarely occurs on its own, without a prefix. These prefixes can also be added to other, non-motion verbs.

па- This prefix is added to the directional infinitive to form the perfective infinitive for all verbs of motion.

  айсці́ to go [somewhere, on foot]   <td> ае́хаць</td> to go [somewhere, by transport]   <td> абе́гчы to run [somewhere]   ане́сці</td>
<td>to carry [something somewhere]                        

- This prefix implies encompassing or overtaking motion.

Indet. et.     <td>абыхо́дзіць быйсці́</td> to walk around   <td>абязджа́ць бе́хаць</td> to drive around
абганя́ць багна́ць to overtake   бкла́дваць | бкла́сці`</td>            
<td>to surround [with something]                    

- This prefix has the meaning of moving away.

адыхо́дзіць дыйсці́ ‘to withdraw’   <td>адно́сіць дне́сці</td> to carry off   <td>адбіра́ць дабра́ць to take away   дрыва́ць | дарва́ць`</td>
<td>to tear off                        
выхо́дзіць ы́йсці to exit [on foot]   <td>вы́насіць ы́несці</td> to carry out   <td>выбіра́ць ы́браць to select   ырыва́ць | ы́рваць`</td>
<td>to tear out                        

да- This prefix implies movement as far as, or up to, a certain point.

дахо́дзіць айсці́ ‘to reach’   <td>дано́сіць ане́сці</td> ‘to bring as far as’   <td>даганя́ць агна́ць to catch up to   абіра́цца | абра́цца`</td>
<td>to get as far as                        

з- This prefix has the meaning of coming off of, or coming out of.

зыхо́дзіць ыйсці́ to come off of   <td>зязжа́ць е́хаць</td> to depart   <td>зно́сіць не́сці to take down from, to take out of   німа́ць | няць`</td>
<td>to remove                        

за- Verbs with this prefix have the meanings of traveling far, or past something.

захо́дзіць айсці́ to walk behind   <td>забе́гаць абе́гчы</td> to run ahead   <td>зано́сіць ане́сці to carry [far] away   акла́дваць | акла́сці`</td>
<td>to place behind                        

на- Verbs with this prefix have the meaning of collision with something.

нахо́дзіць айсці́ ‘to come across, to walk into’   <td>наязджа́ць ае́хаць</td> to run into [with a vehicle]   <td>напада́ць апа́сці to fall into   аступа́ць | аступі́ць`</td>
<td>to approach [a certain time]                        

д- This prefix has the basic meaning of upward motion.

падыхо́дзіць адыйсці́ ‘to approach [on foot]’   <td>падязджа́ць аде́хаць</td> ‘to drive up to’   <td>падбяга́ць адбе́гчы ‘to run up to’   адніма́ць | адня́ць`</td>
<td>to lift                        

пера- This prefix has the meaning of crossing over something.

перахо́дзіць ерайсці́ ‘to walk across’   <td>перано́сіць еране́сці</td> ‘to carry across’   <td>перадава́ць ерада́ць ‘to pass along’   еракла́дваць | еракла́сці`</td>
<td>to transfer, to translate                        

пра- This prefix gives verbs the meaning of passing by something.

прахо́дзіць райсці́ ‘to pass by’   <td>праязджа́ць рае́хаць</td> ‘to drive past’   <td>прабяга́ць рабе́гчы to run by   рано́сіць | ране́сці`</td>
<td>to carry by                        

раз- This prefix gives verbs the meaning of movement in various directions, or distribution.

разыхо́дзіцца азыйсці́ся ‘to disperse’   <td>разязджа́цца азе́хацца</td> ‘to drive away [in various directions]’   <td>разбяга́цца азбе́гчыся to run off, to scatter   азлята́цца | азляце́цца`</td>
<td>to fly away, to scatter                        

у- This prefix gives verbs the meaning of entering. It changes to ува- with хадзі́ць and ісці́.

увахо́дзіць вайсці́ ‘to enter’   <td>уязджа́ць е́хаць</td> to drive in   <td>убяга́ць бе́гчы ‘to run in’   но́сіць | не́сці`</td>
<td>to carry in                        
узыхо́дзіць зыйсці́ ‘to walk up’   <td>узла́зіць зле́зці</td> ‘to climb up’   <td>узлята́ць зляце́ць ‘to take off’   звыша́ць | звы́сіць`</td>
<td>to elevate                        
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