5. Adjective Declension Patterns

Adjectives generally match the gender and case of the noun they describe. As mentioned in Section 3.1, the accusative case of animate masculine nouns and plural nouns is identical to the genitive case. Consistent with this, adjectives describing these nouns also have accusative endings identical with the genitive case.

5.1 Non-palatized stem adjectives

These adjectives with accented endings decline like малады́, ‘young’.

  asc. eut. em.          
Nom. алады́ аладо́е алада́я          
acc. алады́ (-о́га)<br / аладо́е аладу́ю          
Gen. маладо́га маладо́га аладо́й   <td>Dat.< маладо́му маладо́му аладо́й
Instr. алады́м алады́м аладо́й          
Prep. б малады́м б малады́м б маладо́й          

These adjectives with unaccented endings decline like чырво́ны, ‘red’.

Nom. ырво́ны чырво́нае чырво́ная чырво́ныя   <td>acc.< чырво́нае чырво́ную</td> чырво́ныя <td>Gen.</ чырво́наг чырво́нага</td> чырво́най< чырво́ных< <td>Dat.< чырво́наму</td> чырво́нам чырво́най чырво́ным <td>Instr.</td> чырво́ным</t чырво́ным</t чырво́най</t чырво́нымі
Prep. аб чырво́ным аб чырво́ным аб чырво́най аб чырво́ных                                        

adjectives with accented endings of -гі, -кі, or -хі decline like другі́, ‘second’.

Nom. ругі́ друго́е друга́я другі́я   <td>acc друго́е другу́ю</td> другі́я <td>Gen. друго́г друго́га</td> друго́й< другі́х< <td>Dat друго́му</td> друго́м друго́й другі́м <td>Instr.</td> другі́м</t другі́м</t друго́й</t другі́мі
Prep. аб другі́м аб другі́м аб друго́й аб другі́х                                        

adjectives, with unaccented endings of -гі, -кі, or -хі, decline like ху́ткі, ‘fast’.

Nom. у́ткі ху́ткае ху́ткая ху́ткія   <td>acc ху́ткае ху́ткую</td> ху́ткія <td>Gen. ху́ткаг ху́ткага</td> ху́ткай< ху́ткіх< <td>Dat ху́ткаму</td> ху́ткам ху́ткай ху́ткім <td>Instr.</td> ху́ткім</t ху́ткім</t ху́ткай</t ху́ткімі
Prep. аб ху́ткім аб ху́ткім аб ху́ткай аб ху́ткіх                                        

5.2 Palatized stem adjectives

adjectives, whose stem ends in a palatized consonant, decline like апо́шні, ‘last’.

  asc. eut. Fem. l.                                        
Nom. по́шні апо́шняе апо́шняя апо́шнія   <td>acc. апо́шняе апо́шнюю</td> апо́шнія <td>Gen.< апо́шняг апо́шняга</td> апо́шняй< апо́шніх< <td>Dat. апо́шняму</td> апо́шням апо́шняй апо́шнім <td>Instr.</td> апо́шнім</t апо́шнім</t апо́шняй</t апо́шнімі
Prep. аб апо́шнім аб апо́шнім аб апо́шнім аб апо́шнім                                        

5.3 adjective ending variation

The adjectives declined above have the most current and accepted endings, but variations do exist. One common variation replaces the final of the feminine prepositional ending with a . See Section 3.5 for more on how this variation affects nouns. another variation replaces the final of the feminine genitive ending with a . although these variations do exist, they are non-standard and should be avoided by the non-native speaker.

5.3 Short adjectives

The use of short adjectives is much more rare in Belarusian than in Russian, being used almost exclusively for the neuter third person impersonal. as in Russian, such adjectives are only used predicatively. The neuter form of the short adjective is identical to the adverb. See Chapter 29 for more on adverb formation. Only a very few adjectives can take a short form for anything other than the third person impersonal. These include гато́вы, ‘ready’, and ра́ды, ‘glad’. The word паві́нен, which translates as ‘should’, has no long form and can only be used as a short adjective.

The forms of the most common short adjectives are given below, along with some examples.

Masc eut. em. l.
гато́ў ато́ва ато́ва ато́вы
паві́нен аві́нна аві́нна аві́нны
рад а́да а́да а́ды
Будзь гато́ў! — Заўжды́ гато́ў! Be prepared! — always prepared!   <td>Я ра́да, што пакі́нуў.</td> I am glad that he left.
Яна́ паві́нна адра́зу сказа́ць ім. She should immediately tell him.   td> br />
Было́ марко́тна, калі́ ён не прыйшо́ў. It was sad when he did not come.   <td>Мы ду́жа працава́лі, каб усё было́ зро́блена ў час. We worked hard so that everything was done on time.

The long adjective is usually used if the subject is not the neuter third person impersonal.

Пакой поўны людзей. The room is full of people.
Яна не абавязаная дапамагчы яму. She is not obligated to help him.
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